platEU external library

This section presents relevant reading list consisting of the previously published studies, reports, research papers and other material that address issues of relevance to the themes of the platEU project and are available online in open access. platEU library will be regularly updated.

Books, articles and studies

Ballon, Pieter and Evens, Tom (2014). The Platformisation of the Audiovisual Industry. Proceedings of World Media Economics and Management Conference (WMEMC) ‘Contemporary Media Industries – Geographical Issues’, May 12-16, 2014, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Bilić, Paško (2016). Search Algorithms, Hidden Labour and Information Control. Big Data & Society, 3(1), 205395171665215.

Bilić, Paško and Primorac, Jaka (2018). The Digital Advertising Gap and the Online News Industry in Croatia. Media Studies, 9(18), 62–80.

Bilić, Paško and Prug, Toni (2020). Google’s Post-IPO Development: Risks, Rewards, and Shareholder Value. Internet Histories.

Bouquillion, Philippe (2019). Digital Audiovisual Platforms, Between Transnational Flows and National Frameworks. In: George, Éric (ed.) Digitalization of Society and Socio-political Issues 1: Digital, Communication and Culture. ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons.

Crémer, Jacques; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre and Heike Schweitzer (2019). Competition Policy for the Digital Era. Brussels: European Commission. Available at the following link.

Donders, Karen and Pauwels, Caroline (2008). Does EU Policy Challenge the Digital Future of Public Service Broadcasting?: An Analysis of the Commission’s State Aid Approach to Digitization and the Public Service Remit of Public Broadcasting Organizations. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14(3), 295–311.

Duffy, Brooke Erin; Poell, Thomas and David B. Nieborg (2019). Platform Practices in the Cultural Industries: Creativity, Labor, and Citizenship. Social Media + Society. 5(4): 1-8. doi: 10.1177/2056305119879672

Ezrachi, Ariel and Stucke, Maurice E. (2016). Virtual competition: The promise and perils of the algorithm-driven economy. Harvard University Press.

Fontaines, Gilles (2021). The visibility of audiovisual works on TVOD. 2020 Edition. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, available at the following link.

Grece, Christian (2021). Trends in the VOD market in EU28. The report. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, available at the following link.

Hesmondhalgh, David (2021). Streaming’s Effects on Music Culture: Old Anxieties and New Simplifications. Cultural Sociology.

Hesmondhalgh, David (2020). Is music streaming bad for musicians? Problems of evidence and argument. New Media & Society. September 2020. doi:10.1177/1461444820953541

Johnston, Hannah; Caia Alina; Silberman, Michael “Six”; Ceremigna, Monica; Hernandez, Diego; Dumitrescu, Valerica (2020). Working on digital labour platforms. A trade union guide for trainers on crowd-, app- and platform-based work. Brussels: ETUI.

Nieborg, David B. and Poell, Thomas (2018). The Platformization of Cultural Production: Theorizing the Contingent Cultural Commodity. New Media and Society. 20(11): 4275–4292.

Nieborg, David B. and Poell, Thomas (2019). The Platformization of Making Media. In: Deuze, Mark and Mirjam Prenger (ed.). Making Media: Production, Practices and Professions. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 85-96.

Nieborg, David B; Duffy, Brooke Erin and Thomas Poell (2020). Studying Platforms and Cultural Production: Methods, Institutions, and Practices. Social Media + Society. 6(3): 1-7. doi: 10.1177/2056305120943273

Niklas, Jędrzej and Lina Dencik (2020). European Artificial Intelligence Policy: Mapping The Institutional Landscape. Working Paper. Data Justice Lab. Cardiff: Cardiff University.

Pellicone, Anthony J. and June Ahn (2017). The Game of Performing Play: Understanding Streaming as Cultural Production. In: ‘Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’17)’., New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 4863–4874. DOI:

Piasna, Agnieszka and Jan Drahokoupil (2019). Digital labour in central and eastern Europe: evidence from the ETUI Internet and Platform Work Survey. Brussels: ETUI.

Poell, Thomas; Nieborg, David B. and José van Dijck (2019). Platformisation. Internet Policy Review. 8(4). doi: 10.14763/2019.4.1425

Primorac, Jaka (2020). Film globally, work locally: factors influencing the effectiveness of the production incentive programme in the Croatian audio-visual industry, Cultural Trends, 29:4, 287-301, DOI: 10.1080/09548963.2020.1823820

Richieri Hanania, Lilian and Norodom, Anne-Thida (eds.) (2016). Diversity of Cultural Expressions in The Digital Era. Teseopress.

Schäfer, Mirko Tobias (2011). Bastard Culture! How User Participation Transforms Cultural Production. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Schäfer, Mirko Tobias and Karin van Es (eds.) (2017). The Datafied Society. Studying Culture through Data. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Scholz, Trebor and Nathan Schneider (eds.) (2016). Ours to Hack and to Own. The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet. New York & London: OR Books.

Srnicek, Nick (2016). Platform Capitalism. Wiley&Sons.

van Dijck, José; Nieborg, David B. and Thomas Poell (2019). Reframing Platform Power. Internet Policy Review. 8(2). doi: 10.14763/2019.2.1414

van Dijck, José; Poell, Thomas and David B. Nieborg (2018). The Platform Society. Public Values in a Connective World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vlasis, Antonios (2020a). Online Platforms and Culture: The Winning Actors of the Great Lockdown?. Nº4, May, Global watch on culture and digital trade. CEIM/GRIC/FICDC.

Vlasis, Antonios (2020b). Governing Global Digital Trade in the Age of the Covid-19 Pandemic. Nº6, July, Global watch on culture and digital trade. CEIM/GRIC/FICDC.

Vlasis, Antonios (2020c). Global Struggle for Digital Tax and Level Playing Field. Nº7, September, Global watch on culture and digital trade. CEIM/GRIC/FICDC.

Vlasis, Antonios (2020d). European Union and online platforms in global audiovisual politics and economy: Once Upon a Time in America? International Communication Gazette. April 2020. doi:10.1177/1748048520918496

Vlasis, Antonios (2021a). Cultural Markets and Worldwide Activities of Online Platforms: A State of Play. Nº13, April, Global watch on culture and digital trade. CEIM/GRIC/FICDC.

Vlasis, Antonios (2021b). Policy and Economic Challenges for the Governance Ofonline Platforms. Nº14, April, Global watch on culture and digital trade. CEIM/GRIC/FICDC.

Woodcock, Jamie and Graham, Mark (2020). The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction. Polity.

Bilić, P., Prug, T and Žitko, M. (2021). The Political Economy of Digital Monopolies: Contradictions and Alternatives to Data Commodification. Bristol: Bristol University Press, doi:10.1332/policypress/9781529212372.001.0001

Burri, M. (2021). Data Flows versus Data Protection: Mapping Existing Reconciliation Models in Global Trade Law. In: Mathis, K., and Tor, A. (eds). Law and Economics of Regulation. Economic Analysis of Law in European Legal Scholarship, Vol 11. Springer, Cham.

Butković, H. and Samardžija, V. (2019). The Digital Transformation of the Labour Market in Croatia/Digitalna transformacija tržišta rada u Hrvatskoj. Zagreb: IRMO.

Flew, T. (2022). Regulating Platforms. London: Polity Press.

Graham, M. and Dittus, M. (2022). Geographies of Digital Exclusion. Data and Inequality. London: Pluto Press.

Haidar, J. and Keune, M. (eds.) (2021). Work and Labour Relations in Global Platform Capitalism. Elgar Publishing.

Huws, U. (2016). Logged Labour: A New Paradigm of Work Organisation? Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring 2016), pp. 7-26.

Jarrett, K. and Wittkower, D.E. (2016). Economies of the Internet, First Monday, Volume 21, Number 10, 3 October 2016,, DOI:

Milosavljević, M., Poler, M. and Kerševan Smokvina, T. (2019). Net Neutrality in a “Peripheral” but Pioneering Country: Policy Processes, Consequences, and Developments in Slovenia, Medijska istraživanja, (25, (1)), (33-53), DOI: 10.22572/mi.25.1.2

Montero, J. and Finger, M. (2021). The Rise of the New Network Industries. Regulating Digital Platforms. New York and London: Routledge.

Pitts, F. H. (2020). Measuring and Managing Creative Labour: Value Struggles and Billable Hours in the Creative Industries. Organization.

Poell, T., Nieborg, D. B. and Duffy, B. E. (2022). Spaces of Negotiation: Analyzing Platform Power in the News Industry, Digital Journalism, DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2022.2103011

Qu, S., Hesmondhalgh, D. and Xiao, J. (2021). Music Streaming Platforms and Self-releasing Musicians: The Case of China, Information, Communication & Society, DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2021.1971280

Szczepanik, P. (2020). HBO Europe’s Original Programming in the Era of Streaming Wars. In: Barra, L., & Scaglioni, M. (eds.). (2020). A European Television Fiction Renaissance: Premium Production Models and Transnational Circulation (1st ed.). Routledge.

Tchéhouali, D. (ed.) (2021). Impacts des algorithmes de recommandation des plateformes de streaming sur la protection de la vie privée des utilisateurs Canadiens. Rapport de recherche. I S O C – Q U É B E C | A L T E R A L G O 2 0 2 1.

Urzì Brancati, C., Pesole, A., and Fernández-Macías, E. (2019). Digital Labour Platforms in Europe: Numbers, Profiles, and Employment Status of Platform Workers, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, DOI:10.2760/16653, JRC117330.

Valtysson, B. (2020). Digital Cultural Politics. From Policy to Practice. Palgrave Macmillan, DOI:  

Valtysson, B., Jørgensen, R. F., and Munkholm, J. L. (2021). Co-constitutive Complexity: Unpack-ing Google’s Privacy Policy and Terms of Service Post-GDPR. Nordicom Review, 42(1), 124–140.

Vandaele, K. (2021). Collective Resistance and Organizational Creativity amongst Europe’s Platform Workers: A New Power in the Labour Movement? In: Haidar, J. and Keune, M. (eds.) (2021). Work and Labour Relations in Global Platform Capitalism. Elgar Publishing.

Vlassis, A. (2022). Cooperation Among Intergovernmental Organizations in Global Cultural Governance: Towards an Actor-centered Constructivist Approach, International Journal of Cultural Policy, DOI: 10.1080/10286632.2021.2014461

Wood, A. J., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., and Hjorth, I. (2019). Good Gig, Bad Gig: Autonomy and Algorithmic Control in the Global Gig Economy. Work, Employment and Society, 33(1), 56–75.

Wood, A.J., Martindale, N. and Lehdonvirta, V. (2021) Dynamics of Contention in the Gig Economy: Rage Against the Platform, Customer or State? New Technology, Work and Employment, 00, 1– 21.

Yin, D. Y. (2020). Globalization and Media in the Digital Platform Age. New York and London: Routledge.

Yin, D. Y. (ur.) (2021). The Routledge Handbook of Digital Media and Globalization. New York and London: Routledge.

Official reports and EU documents:

Busch, Christoph; Graef, Inge; Hofmann, Jeanette and Gawer, Annabelle (2021). Final Report. Expert Group for the Observatory on the Online Platform Economy. Uncovering blindspots in the policy debate on platform power. Brussels: European Commission. Available at:

European Commission (2010). Digital Agenda for Europe. Brussels: EU. Available at:

European Commission (2015). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe. Brussels, COM (2015) 192 final. Available at:

European Commission (2016). Promoting reading in the digital environment. Report of the working group of EU member states’ experts under the Open Method of Coordination. Available at:

European Commission (2018a). Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE laying down rules relating to the corporate taxation of a significant digital presence.

European Commission (2018b). Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE on the common system of a digital services tax on revenues resulting from the provision of certain digital services.

European Commission (2020). Study on the implementation of the new provisions in the revised Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD). Final report. Brussels: EU. Available at:

European Political Strategy Centre (2019). Rethinking Strategic Autonomy in the Digital Age. European Commission.

European Commission (2020a). Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on a Single Market For Digital Services (Digital Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC. COM/2020/825 final. Available at:

European Commission (2020b). Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on contestable and fair markets in the digital sector (Digital Markets Act). COM/2020/842 final. Available at:

Gomez Herrera, Estrella and Martens, Bertin (2015). Language, copyright and geographic segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for music and film. Digital Economy Working Paper 2015-04. JRC Technical Report. Brussels: European Commission. Available at:

Lechardoy, Lucie; Sokolyanskaya, Alena; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco (2021). Study on “Support to the Observatory for the Online Platform Economy”. Analytical paper #6. Analytical paper on the structure of the online platform economy post COVID-19 outbreak. Observatory of the Online Platform Economy. Study available at:

European Commission, (2021). COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS. Better working conditions for a stronger social Europe: harnessing the full benefits of digitalisation for the future of work. Brussels, 9.12.2021. COM(2021) 761 final.

European Commission, (2022). COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS. Establishing a European Declaration on Digital rights and principles for the Digital. Brussels, 26.1.2022, COM(2022) 27 final.

The link to the text of the Commission decision of 9 February 2022 on the financing of Electronic Communications actions and the adoption of the work programme for 2022. It also contains an annex describing the actions to be financed and the budget breakdown for 2022: (accessed 4/11/2022).

Web pages:

European Commission, DG EAC, Education, Youth, Sport and Culture

European Commission, DG CONNECT, Communications Networks, Content and Technology

European Parliament, Culture and Education Committee

European Parliament, Special Committee on Artificial Intelligence in a Digital Age

Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe

Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM), Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (CMPF)

The Observatory on the Online Platform Economy

European Commission, The Digital Europe Programme (DIGITAL):

European Commission, Group of Experts for the Observatory on the Online Platform Economy (E03607):

Online sources:

Webinar “Where do we stand on the discoverability of cultural content in the digital environment in 2021?” organized by the Coalition for the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDEC) on February 25, 2021.

Online conference ‘The new Digital Services Act Package: a paradigm shift?’ held on 11th of February 2021, organised by European Audiovisual Observatory:

Webinar ‘Digital Platforms and Public Policies’ (Prof. Ursula Huws, Prof. Sandro Mezzadra, prof. Guy Standing), held on 16th of February 2021, in organisation of PLUS project:

Virtual Symposium ‘Platformed Creation: The World of Influencers, Content Creators, and Micro-Celebrities’, Friday, October 16, 2020, Stanford University | Stanford Ethnography Lab:

The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI):

Webinar – Data Sovereignty in the Digital Decade – For a stronger digital Europe in the world (European Commission): (The Digital Decade Futurium Community organized a webinar to discuss with experts and policy makers about what makes data a crucial cornerstone of the 2030 Digital Decade policy programme) (October 2022).